The Ralph M. Brown Act
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54956.9

54956.9 (b) 1

54956.9 (b) 3 (a)

 

California Government Code

CALIFORNIA CODES
GOVERNMENT CODE
SECTION 54950-54963
54950.  In enacting this chapter, the Legislature finds and declares
that the public commissions, boards and councils and the other
public agencies in this State exist to aid in the conduct of the
people's business.  It is the intent of the law that their actions be
taken openly and that their deliberations be conducted openly.
   The people of this State do not yield their sovereignty to the
agencies which serve them.  The people, in delegating authority, do
not give their public servants the right to decide what is good for
the people to know and what is not good for them to know.  The people
insist on remaining informed so that they may retain control over
the instruments they have created.

54950.5.  This chapter shall be known as the Ralph M. Brown Act.

54951.  As used in this chapter, "local agency" means a county,
city, whether general law or chartered, city and county, town, school
district, municipal corporation, district, political subdivision, or
any board, commission or agency thereof, or other local public
agency.

54952.  As used in this chapter, "legislative body" means:
   (a) The governing body of a local agency or any other local body
created by state or federal statute.
   (b) A commission, committee, board, or other body of a local
agency, whether permanent or temporary, decisionmaking or advisory,
created by charter, ordinance, resolution, or formal action of a
legislative body.  However, advisory committees, composed solely of
the members of the legislative body that are less than a quorum of
the legislative body are not legislative bodies, except that standing
committees of a legislative body, irrespective of their composition,
which have a continuing subject matter jurisdiction, or a meeting
schedule fixed by charter, ordinance, resolution, or formal action of
a legislative body are legislative bodies for purposes of this
chapter.
   (c) (1) A board, commission, committee, or other multimember body
that governs a private corporation, limited liability company, or
other entity that either:
   (A) Is created by the elected legislative body in order to
exercise authority that may lawfully be delegated by the elected
governing body to a private corporation, limited liability company,
or other entity.
   (B) Receives funds from a local agency and the membership of whose
governing body includes a member of the legislative body of the
local agency appointed to that governing body as a full voting member
by the legislative body of the local agency.
   (2) Notwithstanding subparagraph (B) of paragraph (1), no board,
commission, committee, or other multimember body that governs a
private corporation, limited liability company, or other entity that
receives funds from a local agency and, as of February 9, 1996, has a
member of the legislative body of the local agency as a full voting
member of the governing body of that private corporation, limited
liability company, or other entity shall be relieved from the public
meeting requirements of this chapter by virtue of a change in status
of the full voting member to a nonvoting member.
   (d) The lessee of any hospital the whole or part of which is first
leased pursuant to subdivision (p) of Section 32121 of the Health
and Safety Code after January 1, 1994, where the lessee exercises any
material authority of a legislative body of a local agency delegated
to it by that legislative body whether the lessee is organized and
operated by the local agency or by a delegated authority.

54952.1.  Any person elected to serve as a member of a legislative
body who has not yet assumed the duties of office shall conform his
or her conduct to the requirements of this chapter and shall be
treated for purposes of enforcement of this chapter as if he or she
has already assumed office.

54952.2.  (a) As used in this chapter, "meeting" includes any
congregation of a majority of the members of a legislative body at
the same time and place to hear, discuss, or deliberate upon any item
that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of the legislative
body or the local agency to which it pertains.
   (b) Except as authorized pursuant to Section 54953, any use of
direct communication, personal intermediaries, or technological
devices that is employed by a majority of the members of the
legislative body to develop a collective concurrence as to action to
be taken on an item by the members of the legislative body is
prohibited.
   (c) Nothing in this section shall impose the requirements of this
chapter upon any of the following:
   (1) Individual contacts or conversations between a member of a
legislative body and any other person.
   (2) The attendance of a majority of the members of a legislative
body at a conference or similar gathering open to the public that
involves a discussion of issues of general interest to the public or
to public agencies of the type represented by the legislative body,
provided that a majority of the members do not discuss among
themselves, other than as part of the scheduled program, business of
a specified nature that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of
the local agency.  Nothing in this paragraph is intended to allow
members of the public free admission to a conference or similar
gathering at which the organizers have required other participants or
registrants to pay fees or charges as a condition of attendance.
   (3) The attendance of a majority of the members of a legislative
body at an open and publicized meeting organized to address a topic
of local community concern by a person or organization other than the
local agency, provided that a majority of the members do not discuss
among themselves, other than as part of the scheduled program,
business of a specific nature that is within the subject matter
jurisdiction of the legislative body of the local agency.
   (4) The attendance of a majority of the members of a legislative
body at an open and noticed meeting of another body of the local
agency, or at an open and noticed meeting of a legislative body of
another local agency, provided that a majority of the members do not
discuss among themselves, other than as part of the scheduled
meeting, business of a specific nature that is within the subject
matter jurisdiction of the legislative body of the local agency.
   (5) The attendance of a majority of the members of a legislative
body at a purely social or ceremonial occasion, provided that a
majority of the members do not discuss among themselves business of a
specific nature that is within the subject matter jurisdiction of
the legislative body of the local agency.
   (6) The attendance of a majority of the members of a legislative
body at an open and noticed meeting of a standing committee of that
body, provided that the members of the legislative body who are not
members of the standing committee attend only as observers.

54952.6.  As used in this chapter, "action taken" means a collective
decision made by a majority of the members of a legislative body, a
collective commitment or promise by a majority of the members of a
legislative body to make a positive or a negative decision, or an
actual vote by a majority of the members of a legislative body when
sitting as a body or entity, upon a motion, proposal, resolution,
order or ordinance.

54952.7.  A legislative body of a local agency may require that a
copy of this chapter be given to each member of the legislative body
and any person elected to serve as a member of the legislative body
who has not assumed the duties of office.  An elected legislative
body of a local agency may require that a copy of this chapter be
given to each member of each legislative body all or a majority of
whose members are appointed by or under the authority of the elected
legislative body.

54953.  (a) All meetings of the legislative body of a local agency
shall be open and public, and all persons shall be permitted to
attend any meeting of the legislative body of a local agency, except
as otherwise provided in this chapter.
   (b) (1) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the
legislative body of a local agency may use teleconferencing for the
benefit of the public and the legislative body of a local agency in
connection with any meeting or proceeding authorized by law. The
teleconferenced meeting or proceeding shall comply with all
requirements of this chapter and all otherwise applicable provisions
of law relating to a specific type of meeting or proceeding.
   (2) Teleconferencing, as authorized by this section, may be used
for all purposes in connection with any meeting within the subject
matter jurisdiction of the legislative body. All votes taken during a
teleconferenced meeting shall be by rollcall.
   (3) If the legislative body of a local agency elects to use
teleconferencing, it shall post agendas at all teleconference
locations and conduct teleconference meetings in a manner that
protects the statutory and constitutional rights of the parties or
the public appearing before the legislative body of a local agency.
Each teleconference location shall be identified in the notice and
agenda of the meeting or proceeding, and each teleconference location
shall be accessible to the public. During the teleconference, at
least a quorum of the members of the legislative body shall
participate from locations within the boundaries of the territory
over which the local agency exercises jurisdiction, except as
provided in subdivision (d). The agenda shall provide an opportunity
for members of the public to address the legislative body directly
pursuant to Section 54954.3 at each teleconference location.
   (4) For the purposes of this section, "teleconference" means a
meeting of a legislative body, the members of which are in different
locations, connected by electronic means, through either audio or
video, or both. Nothing in this section shall prohibit a local agency
from providing the public with additional teleconference locations.

   (c) No legislative body shall take action by secret ballot,
whether preliminary or final.
   (d) (1) Notwithstanding the provisions relating to a quorum in
paragraph (3) of subdivision (b), when a health authority conducts a
teleconference meeting, members who are outside the jurisdiction of
the authority may be counted toward the establishment of a quorum
when participating in the teleconference if at least 50 percent of
the number of members that would establish a quorum are present
within the boundaries of the territory over which the authority
exercises jurisdiction, and the health authority provides a
teleconference number, and associated access codes, if any, that
allows any person to call in to participate in the meeting and that
number and access codes are identified in the notice and agenda of
the meeting.
   (2) Nothing in this subdivision shall be construed as discouraging
health authority members from regularly meeting at a common physical
site within the jurisdiction of the authority or from using
teleconference locations within or near the jurisdiction of the
authority. A teleconference meeting for which a quorum is established
pursuant to this subdivision shall be subject to all other
requirements of this section.
   (3) For purposes of this subdivision, a health authority means any
entity created pursuant to Sections 14018.7, 14087.31, 14087.35,
14087.36, 14087.38, and 14087.9605 of the Welfare and Institutions
Code, any joint powers authority created pursuant to Article 1
(commencing with Section 6500) of Chapter 5 of Division 7 for the
purpose of contracting pursuant to Section 14087.3 of the Welfare and
Institutions Code, and any advisory committee to a county sponsored
health plan licensed pursuant to Chapter 2.2 (commencing with Section
1340) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code if the advisory
committee has 12 or more members.
  (4) This subdivision shall remain in effect only until January 1,
2009.

54953.1.  The provisions of this chapter shall not be construed to
prohibit the members of the legislative body of a local agency from
giving testimony in private before a grand jury, either as
individuals or as a body.

54953.2.  All meetings of a legislative body of a local agency that
are open and public shall meet the protections and prohibitions
contained in Section 202 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of
1990 (42 U.S.C. Sec.  12132), and the federal rules and regulations
adopted in implementation thereof.

54953.3.  A member of the public shall not be required, as a
condition to attendance at a meeting of a legislative body of a local
agency, to register his or her name, to provide other information,
to complete a questionnaire, or otherwise to fulfill any condition
precedent to his or her attendance.
   If an attendance list, register, questionnaire, or other similar
document is posted at or near the entrance to the room where the
meeting is to be held, or is circulated to the persons present during
the meeting, it shall state clearly that the signing, registering,
or completion of the document is voluntary, and that all persons may
attend the meeting regardless of whether a person signs, registers,
or completes the document.

54953.5.  (a) Any person attending an open and public meeting of a
legislative body of a local agency shall have the right to record the
proceedings with an audio or video tape recorder or a still or
motion picture camera in the absence of a reasonable finding by the
legislative body of the local agency that the recording cannot
continue without noise, illumination, or obstruction of view that
constitutes, or would constitute, a persistent disruption of the
proceedings.
   (b) Any tape or film record of an open and public meeting made for
whatever purpose by or at the direction of the local agency shall be
subject to inspection pursuant to the California Public Records Act
(Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division 7 of Title
1), but, notwithstanding Section 34090, may be erased or destroyed 30
days after the taping or recording.  Any inspection of a video or
tape recording shall be provided without charge on a video or tape
player made available by the local agency.

54953.6.  No legislative body of a local agency shall prohibit or
otherwise restrict the broadcast of its open and public meetings in
the absence of a reasonable finding that the broadcast cannot be
accomplished without noise, illumination, or obstruction of view that
would constitute a persistent disruption of the proceedings.

54953.7.  Notwithstanding any other provision of law, legislative
bodies of local agencies may impose  requirements upon themselves
which allow greater access to their meetings than prescribed by the
minimal standards set forth in this chapter.  In addition thereto, an
elected legislative body of a local agency may impose such
requirements on those appointed legislative bodies of the local
agency of which all or a majority of the members are appointed by or
under the authority of the elected legislative body.

54954.  (a) Each legislative body of a local agency, except for
advisory committees or standing committees, shall provide, by
ordinance, resolution, bylaws, or by whatever other rule is required
for the conduct of business by that body, the time and place for
holding regular meetings.  Meetings of advisory committees or
standing committees, for which an agenda is posted at least 72 hours
in advance of the meeting pursuant to subdivision (a) of Section
54954.2, shall be considered for purposes of this chapter as regular
meetings of the legislative body.
   (b) Regular and special meetings of the legislative body shall be
held within the boundaries of the territory over which the local
agency exercises jurisdiction, except to do any of the following:
   (1) Comply with state or federal law or court order, or attend a
judicial or administrative proceeding to which the local agency is a
party.
   (2) Inspect real or personal property which cannot be conveniently
brought within the boundaries of the territory over which the local
agency exercises jurisdiction provided that the topic of the meeting
is limited to items directly related to the real or personal
property.
   (3) Participate in meetings or discussions of multiagency
significance that are outside the boundaries of a local agency's
jurisdiction.  However, any meeting or discussion held pursuant to
this subdivision shall take place within the jurisdiction of one of
the participating local agencies and be noticed by all participating
agencies as provided for in this chapter.
   (4) Meet in the closest meeting facility if the local agency has
no meeting facility within the boundaries of the territory over which
the local agency exercises jurisdiction, or at the principal office
of the local agency if that office is located outside the territory
over which the agency exercises jurisdiction.
   (5) Meet outside their immediate jurisdiction with elected or
appointed officials of the United States or the State of California
when a local meeting would be impractical, solely to discuss a
legislative or regulatory issue affecting the local agency and over
which the federal or state officials have jurisdiction.
   (6) Meet outside their immediate jurisdiction if the meeting takes
place in or nearby a facility owned by the agency, provided that the
topic of the meeting is limited to items directly related to the
facility.
   (7) Visit the office of the local agency's legal counsel for a
closed session on pending litigation held pursuant to Section
54956.9, when to do so would reduce legal fees or costs.
   (c) Meetings of the governing board of a school district shall be
held within the district, except under the circumstances enumerated
in subdivision (b), or to do any of the following:
   (1) Attend a conference on nonadversarial collective bargaining
techniques.
   (2) Interview members of the public residing in another district
with reference to the trustees' potential employment of an applicant
for the position  of the superintendent of the district.
   (3) Interview a potential employee from another district.
   (d) Meetings of a joint powers authority shall occur within the
territory of at least one of its member agencies, or as provided in
subdivision (b).  However, a joint powers authority which has members
throughout the state may meet at any facility in the state which
complies with the requirements of Section 54961.
   (e) If, by reason of fire, flood, earthquake, or other emergency,
it shall be unsafe to meet in the place designated, the meetings
shall be held for the duration of the emergency at the place
designated by the presiding officer of the legislative body or his or
her designee in a notice to the local media that have requested
notice pursuant to Section 54956, by the most rapid means of
communication available at the time.

54954.1.  Any person may request that a copy of the agenda, or a
copy of all the documents constituting the agenda packet, of any
meeting of a legislative body be mailed to that person.  If
requested, the agenda and documents in the agenda packet shall be
made available in appropriate alternative formats to persons with a
disability, as required by Section 202 of the Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 12132), and the federal
rules and regulations adopted in implementation thereof.  Upon
receipt of the written request, the legislative body or its designee
shall cause the requested materials to be mailed at the time the
agenda is posted pursuant to Section 54954.2 and 54956 or upon
distribution to all, or a majority of all, of the members of a
legislative body, whichever occurs first.  Any request for mailed
copies of agendas or agenda packets shall be valid for the calendar
year in which it is filed, and must be renewed following January 1 of
each year.  The legislative body may establish a fee for mailing the
agenda or agenda packet, which fee shall not exceed the cost of
providing the service.  Failure of the requesting person to receive
the agenda or agenda packet pursuant to this section shall not
constitute grounds for invalidation of the actions of the legislative
body taken at the meeting for which the agenda or agenda packet was
not received.

54954.2.  (a) (1) At least 72 hours before a regular meeting, the
legislative body of the local agency, or its designee, shall post an
agenda containing a brief general description of each item of
business to be transacted or discussed at the meeting, including
items to be discussed in closed session. A brief general description
of an item generally need not exceed 20 words. The agenda shall
specify the time and location of the regular meeting and shall be
posted in a location that is freely accessible to members of the
public. If requested, the agenda shall be made available in
appropriate alternative formats to persons with a disability, as
required by Section 202 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of
1990 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 12132), and the federal rules and regulations
adopted in implementation thereof. The agenda shall include
information regarding how, to whom, and when a request for disability
related modification or accommodation, including auxiliary aids or
services may be made by a person with a disability who requires a
modification or accommodation in order to participate in the public
meeting.
   (2) No action or discussion shall be undertaken on any item not
appearing on the posted agenda, except that members of a legislative
body or its staff may briefly respond to statements made or questions
posed by persons exercising their public testimony rights under
Section 54954.3. In addition, on their own initiative or in response
to questions posed by the public, a member of a legislative body or
its staff may ask a question for clarification, make a brief
announcement, or make a brief report on his or her own activities.
Furthermore, a member of a legislative body, or the body itself,
subject to rules or procedures of the legislative body, may provide a
reference to staff or other resources for factual information,
request staff to report back to the body at a subsequent meeting
concerning any matter, or take action to direct staff to place a
matter of business on a future agenda.
   (b) Notwithstanding subdivision (a), the legislative body may take
action on items of business not appearing on the posted agenda under
any of the conditions stated below. Prior to discussing any item
pursuant to this subdivision, the legislative body shall publicly
identify the item.
   (1) Upon a determination by a majority vote of the legislative
body that an emergency situation exists, as defined in Section
54956.5.
   (2) Upon a determination by a two-thirds vote of the members of
the legislative body present at the meeting, or, if less than
two-thirds of the members are present, a unanimous vote of those
members present, that there is a need to take immediate action and
that the need for action came to the attention of the local agency
subsequent to the agenda being posted as specified in subdivision
(a).
   (3) The item was posted pursuant to subdivision (a) for a prior
meeting of the legislative body occurring not more than five calendar
days prior to the date action is taken on the item, and at the prior
meeting the item was continued to the meeting at which action is
being taken.
   (c) This section is necessary to implement and reasonably within
the scope of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 3 of Article
I of the California Constitution.

54954.3.  (a) Every agenda for regular meetings shall provide an
opportunity for members of the public to directly address the
legislative body on any item of interest to the public, before or
during the legislative body's consideration of the item, that is
within the subject matter jurisdiction of the legislative body,
provided that no action shall be taken on any item not appearing on
the agenda unless the action is otherwise authorized by subdivision
(b) of Section 54954.2.  However, the agenda need not provide an
opportunity for members of the public to address the legislative body
on any item that has already been considered by a committee,
composed exclusively of members of the legislative body, at a public
meeting wherein all interested members of the public were afforded
the opportunity to address the committee on the item, before or
during the committee's consideration of the item, unless the item has
been substantially changed since the committee heard the item, as
determined by the legislative body.  Every notice for a special
meeting shall provide an opportunity for members of the public to
directly address the legislative body concerning any item that has
been described in the notice for the meeting before or during
consideration of that item.
   (b) The legislative body of a local agency may adopt reasonable
regulations to ensure that the intent of subdivision (a) is carried
out, including, but not limited to, regulations limiting the total
amount of time allocated for public testimony on particular issues
and for each individual speaker.
   (c) The legislative body of a local agency shall not prohibit
public criticism of the policies, procedures, programs, or services
of the agency, or of the acts or omissions of the legislative body.
Nothing in this subdivision shall confer any privilege or protection
for expression beyond that otherwise provided by law.

54954.4.  (a) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that Section
12 of Chapter 641 of the Statutes of 1986, authorizing reimbursement
to local agencies and school districts for costs mandated by the
state pursuant to that act, shall be interpreted strictly.  The
intent of the Legislature is to provide reimbursement for only those
costs which are clearly and unequivocally incurred as the direct and
necessary result of compliance with Chapter 641 of the Statutes of
1986.
   (b) In this regard, the Legislature directs all state employees
and officials involved in reviewing or authorizing claims for
reimbursement, or otherwise participating in the reimbursement
process, to rigorously review each claim and authorize only those
claims, or parts thereof, which represent costs which are clearly and
unequivocally incurred as the direct and necessary result of
compliance with Chapter 641 of the Statutes of 1986 and for which
complete documentation exists.  For purposes of Section 54954.2,
costs eligible for reimbursement shall only include the actual cost
to post a single agenda for any one meeting.
   (c) The Legislature hereby finds and declares that complete,
faithful, and uninterrupted compliance with the Ralph M. Brown Act
(Chapter 9 (commencing with Section 54950) of Part 1 of Division 2 of
Title 5 of the Government Code) is a matter of overriding public
importance.  Unless specifically stated, no future Budget Act, or
related budget enactments, shall, in any manner, be interpreted to
suspend, eliminate, or otherwise modify the legal obligation and duty
of local agencies to fully comply with Chapter 641 of the Statutes
of 1986 in a complete, faithful, and uninterrupted manner.

54954.5.  For purposes of describing closed session items pursuant
to Section 54954.2, the agenda may describe closed sessions as
provided below. No legislative body or elected official shall be in
violation of Section 54954.2 or 54956 if the closed session items
were described in substantial compliance with this section.
Substantial compliance is satisfied by including the information
provided below, irrespective of its format.
   (a) With respect to a closed session held pursuant to Section
54956.7:
   LICENSE/PERMIT DETERMINATION
   Applicant(s): (Specify number of applicants)
   (b) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.8:
   CONFERENCE WITH REAL PROPERTY NEGOTIATORS
   Property: (Specify street address, or if no street address, the
parcel number or other unique reference, of the real property under
negotiation)
   Agency negotiator: (Specify names of negotiators attending the
closed session) (If circumstances necessitate the absence of a
specified negotiator, an agent or designee may participate in place
of the absent negotiator so long as the name of the agent or designee
is announced at an open session held prior to the closed session.)
   Negotiating parties: (Specify name of party (not agent))
   Under negotiation: (Specify whether instruction to negotiator will
concern price, terms of payment, or both)
   (c) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.9:
   CONFERENCE WITH LEGAL COUNSEL--EXISTING LITIGATION
   (Subdivision (a) of Section 54956.9)
   Name of case: (Specify by reference to claimant's name, names of
parties, case or claim numbers)
   or
   Case name unspecified: (Specify whether disclosure would
jeopardize service of process or existing settlement negotiations)
   CONFERENCE WITH LEGAL COUNSEL--ANTICIPATED LITIGATION
   Significant exposure to litigation pursuant to subdivision (b) of
Section 54956.9: (Specify number of potential cases)
   (In addition to the information noticed above, the agency may be
required to provide additional information on the agenda or in an
oral statement prior to the closed session pursuant to subparagraphs
(B) to (E), inclusive, of paragraph (3) of subdivision (b) of Section
54956.9.)
   Initiation of litigation pursuant to subdivision (c) of Section
54956.9: (Specify number of potential cases)
   (d) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.95:
   LIABILITY CLAIMS
   Claimant: (Specify name unless unspecified pursuant to Section
54961)
   Agency claimed against: (Specify name)
   (e) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54957:
   THREAT TO PUBLIC SERVICES OR FACILITIES
   Consultation with: (Specify name of law enforcement agency and
title of officer, or name of applicable agency representative and
title)
   PUBLIC EMPLOYEE APPOINTMENT
   Title: (Specify description of position to be filled)
   PUBLIC EMPLOYMENT
   Title: (Specify description of position to be filled)
   PUBLIC EMPLOYEE PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
   Title: (Specify position title of employee being reviewed)
   PUBLIC EMPLOYEE DISCIPLINE/DISMISSAL/RELEASE
   (No additional information is required in connection with a closed
session to consider discipline, dismissal, or release of a public
employee. Discipline includes potential reduction of compensation.)
   (f) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54957.6:
   CONFERENCE WITH LABOR NEGOTIATORS
   Agency designated representatives: (Specify names of designated
representatives attending the closed session) (If circumstances
necessitate the absence of a specified designated representative, an
agent or designee may participate in place of the absent
representative so long as the name of the agent or designee is
announced at an open session held prior to the closed session.)
   Employee organization: (Specify name of organization representing
employee or employees in question)
   or
   Unrepresented employee: (Specify position title of unrepresented
employee who is the subject of the negotiations)
   (g) With respect to closed sessions called pursuant to Section
54957.8:
   CASE REVIEW/PLANNING
   (No additional information is required in connection with a closed
session to consider case review or planning.)
   (h) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Sections 1461, 32106, and 32155 of the
Health and Safety Code or Sections 37606 and 37624.3 of the
Government Code:
   REPORT INVOLVING TRADE SECRET
   Discussion will concern: (Specify whether discussion will concern
proposed new service, program, or facility)
   Estimated date of public disclosure: (Specify month and year)
   HEARINGS
   Subject matter: (Specify whether testimony/deliberation will
concern staff privileges, report of medical audit committee, or
report of quality assurance committee)
   (i) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.86:
   CHARGE OR COMPLAINT INVOLVING INFORMATION PROTECTED BY FEDERAL LAW

   (No additional information is required in connection with a closed
session to discuss a charge or complaint pursuant to Section
54956.86.)
   (j) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.96:
   CONFERENCE INVOLVING A JOINT POWERS AGENCY (Specify by name)
   Discussion will concern: (Specify closed session description used
by the joint powers agency)
   Name of local agency representative on joint powers agency board:
(Specify name)
   (Additional information listing the names of agencies or titles of
representatives attending the closed session as consultants or other
representatives.)
   (k) With respect to every item of business to be discussed in
closed session pursuant to Section 54956.75:
   AUDIT BY BUREAU OF STATE AUDITS

54954.6.  (a) (1) Before adopting any new or increased general tax
or any new or increased assessment, the legislative body of a local
agency shall conduct at least one public meeting at which local
officials shall allow public testimony regarding the proposed new or
increased general tax or new or increased assessment in addition to
the noticed public hearing at which the legislative body proposes to
enact or increase the general tax or assessment.
   For purposes of this section, the term "new or increased
assessment" does not include any of the following:
   (A) A fee that does not exceed the reasonable cost of providing
the services, facilities, or regulatory activity for which the fee is
charged.
   (B) A service charge, rate, or charge, unless a special district's
principal act requires the service charge, rate, or charge to
conform to the requirements of this section.
   (C) An ongoing annual assessment if it is imposed at the same or
lower amount as any previous year.
   (D) An assessment that does not exceed an assessment formula or
range of assessments previously specified in the notice given to the
public pursuant to subparagraph (G) of paragraph (2) of subdivision
(c) and that was previously adopted by the agency or approved by the
voters in the area where the assessment is imposed.
   (E) Standby or immediate availability charges.
   (2) The legislative body shall provide at least 45 days' public
notice of the public hearing at which the legislative body proposes
to enact or increase the general tax or assessment.  The legislative
body shall provide notice for the public meeting at the same time and
in the same document as the notice for the public hearing, but the
meeting shall occur prior to the hearing.
   (b) (1) The joint notice of both the public meeting and the public
hearing required by subdivision (a) with respect to a proposal for a
new or increased general tax shall be accomplished by placing a
display advertisement of at least one-eighth page in a newspaper of
general circulation for three weeks pursuant to Section 6063 and by a
first-class mailing to those interested parties who have filed a
written request with the local agency for mailed notice of public
meetings or hearings on new or increased general taxes.  The public
meeting pursuant to subdivision (a) shall take place no earlier than
10 days after the first publication of the joint notice pursuant to
this subdivision.  The public hearing shall take place no earlier
than seven days after the public meeting pursuant to this
subdivision.  Notwithstanding paragraph (2) of subdivision (a), the
joint notice need not include notice of the public meeting after the
meeting has taken place.  The public hearing pursuant to subdivision
(a) shall take place no earlier than 45 days after the first
publication of the joint notice pursuant to this subdivision.  Any
written request for mailed notices shall be effective for one year
from the date on which it is filed unless a renewal request is filed.
  Renewal requests for mailed notices shall be filed on or before
April 1 of each year.  The legislative body may establish a
reasonable annual charge for sending notices based on the estimated
cost of providing the service.
   (2) The notice required by paragraph (1) of this subdivision shall
include, but not be limited to, the following:
   (A) The amount or rate of the tax.  If the tax is proposed to be
increased from any previous year, the joint notice shall separately
state both the existing tax rate and the proposed tax rate increase.

   (B) The activity to be taxed.
   (C) The estimated amount of revenue to be raised by the tax
annually.
   (D) The method and frequency for collecting the tax.
   (E) The dates, times, and locations of the public meeting and
hearing described in subdivision (a).
   (F) The phone number and address of an individual, office, or
organization that interested persons may contact to receive
additional information about the tax.
   (c) (1) The joint notice of both the public meeting and the public
hearing required by subdivision (a) with respect to a proposal for a
new or increased assessment on real property shall be accomplished
through a mailing, postage prepaid, in the United States mail and
shall be deemed given when so deposited.  The public meeting pursuant
to subdivision (a) shall take place no earlier than 10 days after
the joint mailing pursuant to this subdivision.  The public hearing
shall take place no earlier than seven days after the public meeting
pursuant to this subdivision.  The envelope or the cover of the
mailing shall include the name of the local agency and the return
address of the sender.  This mailed notice shall be in at least
10-point type and shall be given to all property owners proposed to
be subject to the new or increased assessment by a mailing by name to
those persons whose names and addresses appear on the last equalized
county assessment roll or the State Board of Equalization assessment
roll, as the case may be.
   (2) The joint notice required by paragraph (1) of this subdivision
shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
   (A) The estimated amount of the assessment per parcel.  If the
assessment is proposed to be increased from any previous year, the
joint notice shall separately state both the amount of the existing
assessment and the proposed assessment increase.
   (B) A general description of the purpose or improvements that the
assessment will fund.
   (C) The address to which property owners may mail a protest
against the assessment.
   (D) The phone number and address of an individual, office, or
organization that interested persons may contact to receive
additional information about the assessment.
   (E) A statement that a majority protest will cause the assessment
to be abandoned if the assessment act used to levy the assessment so
provides.  Notice shall also state the percentage of protests
required to trigger an election, if applicable.
   (F) The dates, times, and locations of the public meeting and
hearing described in subdivision (a).
   (G) A proposed assessment formula or range as described in
subparagraph (D) of paragraph (1) of subdivision (a) if applicable
and that is noticed pursuant to this section.
   (3) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), in the case of an assessment
that is proposed exclusively for operation and maintenance expenses
imposed throughout the entire local agency, or exclusively for
operation and maintenance assessments proposed to be levied on 50,000
parcels or more, notice may be provided pursuant to this subdivision
or pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) and shall include
the estimated amount of the assessment of various types, amounts, or
uses of property and the information required by subparagraphs (B) to
(G), inclusive, of paragraph (2) of subdivision (c).
   (4) Notwithstanding paragraph (1), in the case of an assessment
proposed to be levied pursuant to Part 2 (commencing with Section
22500) of Division 2 of the Streets and Highways Code by a regional
park district, regional park and open-space district, or regional
open-space district formed pursuant to Article 3 (commencing with
Section 5500) of Chapter 3 of Division 5 of, or pursuant to Division
26 (commencing with Section 35100) of, the Public Resources Code,
notice may be provided pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (b).

   (d) The notice requirements imposed by this section shall be
construed as additional to, and not to supersede, existing provisions
of law, and shall be applied concurrently with the existing
provisions so as to not delay or prolong the governmental
decisionmaking process.
   (e) This section shall not apply to any new or increased general
tax or any new or increased assessment that requires an election of
either of the following:
   (1) The property owners subject to the assessment.
   (2) The voters within the local agency imposing the tax or
assessment.
   (f) Nothing in this section shall prohibit a local agency from
holding a consolidated meeting or hearing at which the legislative
body discusses multiple tax or assessment proposals.
   (g) The local agency may recover the reasonable costs of public
meetings, public hearings, and notice required by this section from
the proceeds of the tax or assessment.  The costs recovered for these
purposes, whether recovered pursuant to this subdivision or any
other provision of law, shall not exceed the reasonable costs of the
public meetings, public hearings, and notice.
   (h) Any new or increased assessment that is subject to the notice
and hearing provisions of Article XIIIC or XIIID of the California
Constitution is not subject to the notice and hearing requirements of
this section.

54955.  The legislative body of a local agency may adjourn any
regular, adjourned regular, special or adjourned special meeting to a
time and place specified in the order of adjournment.  Less than a
quorum may so adjourn from time to time.  If all members are absent
from any regular or adjourned regular meeting the clerk or secretary
of the legislative body may declare the meeting adjourned to a stated
time and place and he shall cause a written notice of the
adjournment to be given in the same manner as provided in Section
54956 for special meetings, unless such notice is waived as provided
for special meetings.  A copy of the order or notice of adjournment
shall be conspicuously posted on or near the door of the place where
the regular, adjourned regular, special or adjourned special meeting
was held within 24 hours after the time of the adjournment.  When a
regular or adjourned regular meeting is adjourned as provided in this
section, the resulting adjourned regular meeting is a regular
meeting for all purposes.  When an order of adjournment of any
meeting fails to state the hour at which the adjourned meeting is to
be held, it shall be held at the hour specified for regular meetings
by ordinance, resolution, bylaw, or other rule.

54955.1.  Any hearing being held, or noticed or ordered to be held,
by a legislative body of a local agency at any meeting may by order
or notice of continuance be continued or recontinued to any
subsequent meeting of the legislative body in the same manner and to
the same extent set forth in Section 54955 for the adjournment of
meetings; provided, that if the hearing is continued to a time less
than 24 hours after the time specified in the order or notice of
hearing, a copy of the order or notice of continuance of hearing
shall be posted immediately following the meeting at which the order
or declaration of continuance was adopted or made.

54956.  A special meeting may be called at any time by the presiding
officer of the legislative body of a local agency, or by a majority
of the members of the legislative body, by delivering written notice
to each member of the legislative body and to each local newspaper of
general circulation and radio or television station requesting
notice in writing.  The notice shall be delivered personally or by
any other means and shall be received at least 24 hours before the
time of the meeting as specified in the notice.  The call and notice
shall specify the time and place of the special meeting and the
business to be transacted or discussed.  No other business shall be
considered at these meetings by the legislative body.  The written
notice may be dispensed with as to any member who at or prior to the
time the meeting convenes files with the clerk or secretary of the
legislative body a written waiver of notice.  The waiver may be given
by telegram.  The written notice may also be dispensed with as to
any member who is actually present at the meeting at the time it
convenes.
   The call and notice shall be posted at least 24 hours prior to the
special meeting in a location that is freely accessible to members
of the public.

54956.5.  (a) For purposes of this section, "emergency situation"
means both of the following:
   (1) An emergency, which shall be defined as a work stoppage,
crippling activity, or other activity that severely impairs public
health, safety, or both, as determined by a majority of the members
of the legislative body.
   (2) A dire emergency, which shall be defined as a crippling
disaster, mass destruction, terrorist act, or threatened terrorist
activity that poses peril so immediate and significant that requiring
a legislative body to provide one-hour notice before holding an
emergency meeting under this section may endanger the public health,
safety, or both, as determined by a majority of the members of the
legislative body.
   (b) (1) Subject to paragraph (2), in the case of an emergency
situation involving matters upon which prompt action is necessary due
to the disruption or threatened disruption of public facilities, a
legislative body may hold an emergency meeting without complying with
  either the 24-hour notice requirement or the 24-hour posting
requirement of Section 54956 or both of the notice and posting
requirements.
   (2) Each local newspaper of general circulation and radio or
television station that has requested notice of special meetings
pursuant to Section 54956 shall be notified by the presiding officer
of the legislative body, or designee thereof, one hour prior to the
emergency  meeting, or, in the case of a dire emergency, at or near
the time that the presiding officer or designee notifies the members
of the legislative body of the emergency meeting.  This notice shall
be given by telephone and all telephone numbers provided in the most
recent request of a newspaper or  station for notification of special
meetings shall be exhausted.  In the event that telephone services
are not functioning, the notice requirements of this section shall be
deemed  waived, and the legislative body, or designee of the
legislative body, shall notify those newspapers, radio stations, or
television stations of the fact of the holding of the emergency
meeting, the purpose of the meeting, and any action taken at the
meeting as soon after the meeting as possible.
   (c) During a meeting held pursuant to this section, the
legislative body may meet in closed session pursuant to Section 54957
if agreed to by a two-thirds vote of the members of the legislative
body present, or, if less than two-thirds of the members are present,
by a unanimous vote of the members present.
   (d) All special meeting requirements, as prescribed in Section
54956 shall be applicable to a meeting called pursuant to this
section, with the exception of the 24-hour notice requirement.
   (e) The minutes of a meeting called pursuant to this section, a
list of persons who the presiding officer of the legislative body, or
designee of the legislative body, notified or attempted to notify, a
copy of the rollcall vote, and any actions taken at the meeting
shall be posted for a minimum of 10 days in a public place as soon
after the meeting as possible.

54956.6.  No fees may be charged by the legislative body of a local
agency for  carrying out any provision of this chapter, except as
specifically authorized by this chapter.

54956.7.  Whenever a legislative body of a local agency determines
that it is necessary to discuss and determine whether an applicant
for a license or license renewal, who has a criminal record, is
sufficiently rehabilitated to obtain the license, the legislative
body may hold a closed session with the applicant and the applicant's
attorney, if any, for the purpose of holding the discussion and
making the determination. If the legislative body determines, as a
result of the closed session, that the issuance or renewal of the
license should be denied, the applicant shall be offered the
opportunity to withdraw the application.  If the applicant withdraws
the application, no record shall be kept of the discussions or
decisions made at the closed session and all matters relating to the
closed session shall be confidential.  If the applicant does not
withdraw the application, the legislative body shall take action at
the public meeting during which the closed session is held or at its
next public meeting denying the application for the license but all
matters relating to the closed session are confidential and shall not
be disclosed without the consent of the applicant, except in an
action by an applicant who has been denied a license challenging the
denial of the license.

54956.75.  (a) Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed
to prevent the legislative body of a local agency that has received a
confidential final draft audit report from the Bureau of State
Audits from holding closed sessions to discuss its response to that
report.
   (b) After the public release of an audit report by the Bureau of
State Audits, if a legislative body of a local agency meets to
discuss the audit report, it shall do so in an open session unless
exempted from that requirement by some other provision of law.

54956.8.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a
legislative body of a local agency may hold a closed session with its
negotiator prior to the purchase, sale, exchange, or lease of real
property by or for the local agency to grant authority to its
negotiator regarding the price and terms of payment for the purchase,
sale, exchange, or lease.
   However, prior to the closed session, the legislative body of the
local agency shall hold an open and public session in which it
identifies its negotiators, the real property or real properties
which the negotiations may concern, and the person or persons with
whom its negotiators may negotiate.
   For purposes of this section, negotiators may be members of the
legislative body of the local agency.
   For purposes of this section, "lease" includes renewal or
renegotiation of a lease.
   Nothing in this section shall preclude a local agency from holding
a closed session for discussions regarding eminent domain
proceedings pursuant to Section 54956.9.

54956.81.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a
legislative body of a local agency that invests pension funds may
hold a closed session to consider the purchase or sale of particular,
specific pension fund investments.  All investment transaction
decisions made during the closed session shall be made by rollcall
vote entered into the minutes of the closed session as provided in
subdivision (a) of Section 54957.2.

54956.86.  Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, a
legislative body of a local agency which provides services pursuant
to Section 14087.3 of the Welfare and Institutions Code may hold a
closed session to hear a charge or complaint from a member enrolled
in its health plan if the member does not wish to have his or her
name, medical status, or other information that is protected by
federal law publicly disclosed.  Prior to holding a closed session
pursuant to this section, the legislative body shall inform the
member, in writing, of his or her right to have the charge or
complaint heard in an open session rather than a closed session.

54956.87.  (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter,
the records of a health plan that is licensed pursuant to the
Knox-Keene Health Care Service Plan Act of 1975 (Chapter 2.2
(commencing with Section 1340) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety
Code) and that is governed by a county board of supervisors, whether
paper records, records maintained in the management information
system, or records in any other form, that relate to provider rate or
payment determinations, allocation or distribution methodologies for
provider payments, formulas or calculations for these payments, and
contract negotiations with providers of health care for alternative
rates are exempt from disclosure for a period of three years after
the contract is fully executed.  The transmission of the records, or
the information contained therein in an alternative form, to the
board of supervisors shall not constitute a waiver of exemption from
disclosure, and the records and information once transmitted to the
board of supervisors shall be subject to this same exemption.
   (b) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the governing
board of a health plan that is licensed pursuant to the Knox-Keene
Health Care Service Plan Act of 1975 (Chapter 2.2 (commencing with
Section 1340) of Division 2 of the Health and Safety Code) and that
is governed by a county board of supervisors may order that a meeting
held solely for the purpose of discussion or taking action on health
plan trade secrets, as defined in subdivision (f), shall be held in
closed session.  The requirements of making a public report of action
taken in closed session, and the vote or abstention of every member
present, may be limited to a brief general description without the
information constituting the trade secret.
   (c) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, the governing
board of a health plan may meet in closed session to consider and
take action on matters pertaining to contracts and contract
negotiations by the health plan with providers of health care
services concerning all matters related to rates of payment.  The
governing board may delete the portion or portions containing trade
secrets from any documents that were finally approved in the closed
session held pursuant to subdivision (b) that are provided to persons
who have made the timely or standing request.
   (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed as preventing the
governing board from meeting in closed session as otherwise provided
by law.
   (e) The provisions of this section shall not prevent access to any
records by the Joint Legislative Audit Committee in the exercise of
its powers pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with Section 10500) of
Chapter 4 of Part 2 of Division 2 of Title 2.  The provisions of this
section also shall not prevent access to any records by the
Department of Corporations in the exercise of its powers pursuant to
Article 1 (commencing with Section 1340) of Chapter 2.2 of Division 2
of the Health and Safety Code.
   (f) For purposes of this section, "health plan trade secret" means
a trade secret, as defined in subdivision (d) of Section 3426.1 of
the Civil Code, that also meets both of the following criteria:
   (1) The secrecy of the information is necessary for the health
plan to initiate a new service, program, marketing strategy, business
plan, or technology, or to add a benefit or product.
   (2) Premature disclosure of the trade secret would create a
substantial probability of depriving the health plan of a substantial
economic benefit or opportunity.

54956.9.  Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent a
legislative body of a local agency, based on advice of its legal
counsel, from holding a closed session to confer with, or receive
advice from, its legal counsel regarding pending litigation when
discussion in open session concerning those matters would prejudice
the position of the local agency in the litigation.
   For purposes of this chapter, all expressions of the lawyer-client
privilege other than those provided in this section are hereby
abrogated.  This section is the exclusive expression of the
lawyer-client privilege for purposes of conducting closed-session
meetings pursuant to this chapter.
   For purposes of this section, "litigation" includes any
adjudicatory proceeding, including eminent domain, before a court,
administrative body exercising its adjudicatory authority, hearing
officer, or arbitrator.
   For purposes of this section, litigation shall be considered
pending when any of the following circumstances exist:
   (a) Litigation, to which the local agency is a party, has been
initiated formally.
 

54956.9.(b)

(1) A point has been reached where, in the opinion of the legislative body of the local agency on the advice of its legal counsel, based on existing facts and circumstances, there is a significant exposure to litigation against the local agency.

(2) Based on existing facts and circumstances, the legislative body of the local agency is meeting only to decide whether a closed session is authorized pursuant to paragraph (1) of this subdivision.

(3) For purposes of paragraphs (1) and (2), "existing facts and circumstances" shall consist only of one of the following:

(A) Facts and circumstances that might result in litigation against the local agency but which the local agency believes are not yet known to a potential plaintiff or plaintiffs, which facts and circumstances need not be disclosed.

(B) Facts and circumstances, including, but  not limited to, an accident, disaster, incident, or transactional occurrence that might result in litigation against the agency and that are known to a potential plaintiff or plaintiffs, which facts or circumstances shall be publicly stated on the agenda or announced.

(C) The receipt of a claim pursuant to the Tort Claims Act or some other written communication from a potential plaintiff threatening litigation, which claim or communication shall be available for public inspection pursuant to Section 54957.5.

(D) A statement made by a person in an open and public meeting threatening litigation on a specific matter within the responsibility of the legislative body.

(E) A statement threatening litigation made by a person outside an open and public meeting on a specific matter within the responsibility of the legislative body so long as the official or employee of the local agency receiving knowledge of the threat makes a contemporaneous or other record of the statement prior to the meeting, which record shall be available for public inspection pursuant to Section 54957.5.  The records so created need not identify the alleged victim of unlawful or tortious sexual conduct or anyone making the threat on their behalf, or identify a public employee who is the alleged perpetrator of any unlawful or tortious conduct upon which a threat of litigation is based, unless the identity of the person has been publicly disclosed.

(F) Nothing in this section shall require disclosure of written communications that are privileged and not subject to disclosure pursuant to the California Public Records Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division 7 of Title 1).


   (c) Based on existing facts and circumstances, the legislative
body of the local agency has decided to initiate or is deciding
whether to initiate litigation.
   Prior to holding a closed session pursuant to this section, the
legislative body of the local agency shall state on the agenda or
publicly announce the subdivision of this section that authorizes the
closed session.  If the session is closed pursuant to subdivision
(a), the body shall state the title of or otherwise specifically
identify the litigation to be discussed, unless the body states that
to do so would jeopardize the agency's ability to effectuate service
of process upon one or more unserved parties, or that to do so would
jeopardize its ability to conclude existing settlement negotiations
to its advantage.
   A local agency shall be considered to be a "party" or to have a
"significant exposure to litigation" if an officer or employee of the
local agency is a party or has significant exposure to litigation
concerning prior or prospective activities or alleged activities
during the course and scope of that office or employment, including
litigation in which it is an issue whether an activity is outside the
course and scope of the office or employment.

54956.95.  (a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent
a joint powers agency formed pursuant to Article 1 (commencing with
Section 6500) of Chapter 5 of Division 7 of Title 1, for purposes of
insurance pooling, or a local agency member of the joint powers
agency, from holding a closed session to discuss a claim for the
payment of tort liability losses, public liability losses, or workers'
compensation liability incurred by the joint powers agency or a
local agency member of the joint powers agency.
   (b) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the
Local Agency Self-Insurance Authority formed pursuant to Chapter 5.5
(commencing with Section 6599.01) of Division 7 of Title 1, or a
local agency member of the authority, from holding a closed session
to discuss a claim for the payment of tort liability losses, public
liability losses, or workers' compensation liability incurred by the
authority or a local agency member of the authority.
   (c) Nothing in this section shall be construed to affect Section
54956.9 with respect to any other local agency.

54956.96.  (a) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent
the legislative body of a joint powers agency formed pursuant to
Article 1 (commencing with Section 6500) of Chapter 5 of Division 7
of Title 1, from adopting a policy or a bylaw or including in its
joint powers agreement provisions that authorize either or both of
the following:
   (1) All information received by the legislative body of the local
agency member in a closed session related to the information
presented to the joint powers agency in closed session shall be
confidential.  However, a member of the legislative body of a member
local agency may disclose information obtained in a closed session
that has direct financial or liability implications for that local
agency to the following individuals:
   (A) Legal counsel of that member local agency for purposes of
obtaining advice on whether the matter has direct financial or
liability implications for that member local agency.
   (B) Other members of the legislative body of the local agency
present in a closed session of that member local agency.
   (2) Any designated alternate member of the legislative body of the
joint powers agency who is also a member of the legislative body of
a local agency member and who is attending a properly noticed meeting
of the joint powers agency in lieu of a local agency member's
regularly appointed member to attend closed sessions of the joint
powers agency.
   (b) If the legislative body of a joint powers agency adopts a
policy or a bylaw or includes provisions in its joint powers
agreement pursuant to subdivision (a), then the legislative body of
the local agency member, upon the advice of its legal counsel, may
conduct a closed session in order to receive, discuss, and take
action concerning information obtained in a closed session of the
joint powers agency pursuant to paragraph (1) of subdivision (a).

54957.  (a) Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to
prevent the legislative body of a local agency from holding closed
sessions with the Attorney General, district attorney, agency
counsel, sheriff, or chief of police, or their respective deputies,
or a security consultant or a security operations manager, on matters
posing a threat to the security of public buildings, a threat to the
security of essential public services, including water, drinking
water, wastewater treatment, natural gas service, and electric
service, or a threat to the public's right of access to public
services or public facilities.
   (b) (1) Subject to paragraph (2), nothing contained in this
chapter shall be construed to prevent the legislative body of a local
agency from holding closed sessions during a regular or special
meeting to consider the appointment, employment, evaluation of
performance, discipline, or dismissal of a public employee or to hear
complaints or charges brought against the employee by another person
or employee unless the employee requests a public session.
   (2) As a condition to holding a closed session on specific
complaints or charges brought against an employee by another person
or employee, the employee shall be given written notice of his or her
right to have the complaints or charges heard in an open session
rather than a closed session, which notice shall be delivered to the
employee personally or by mail at least 24 hours before the time for
holding the session.  If notice is not given, any disciplinary or
other action taken by the legislative body against the employee based
on the specific complaints or charges in the closed session shall be
null and void.
   (3) The legislative body also may exclude from the public or
closed meeting, during the examination of a witness, any or all other
witnesses in the matter being investigated by the legislative body.
   (4) For the purposes of this subdivision, the term "employee"
shall include an officer or an independent contractor who functions
as an officer or an employee but shall not include any elected
official, member of a legislative body or other independent
contractors.  Nothing in this subdivision shall limit local officials'
ability to hold closed session meetings pursuant to Sections 1461,
32106, and 32155 of the Health and Safety Code or Sections 37606 and
37624.3 of the Government Code.  Closed sessions held pursuant to
this subdivision shall not include discussion or action on proposed
compensation except for a reduction of compensation that results from
the imposition of discipline.

54957.1.  (a) The legislative body of any local agency shall
publicly report any action taken in closed session and the vote or
abstention of every member present thereon, as follows:
   (1) Approval of an agreement concluding real estate negotiations
pursuant to Section 54956.8 shall be reported after the agreement is
final, as specified below:
   (A) If its own approval renders the agreement final, the body
shall report that approval and the substance of the agreement in open
session at the public meeting during which the closed session is
held.
   (B) If final approval rests with the other party to the
negotiations, the local agency shall disclose the fact of that
approval and the substance of the agreement upon inquiry by any
person, as soon as the other party or its agent has informed the
local agency of its approval.
   (2) Approval given to its legal counsel to defend, or seek or
refrain from seeking appellate review or relief, or to enter as an
amicus curiae in any form of litigation as the result of a
consultation under Section 54956.9 shall be reported in open session
at the public meeting during which the closed session is held. The
report shall identify, if known, the adverse party or parties and the
substance of the litigation. In the case of approval given to
initiate or intervene in an action, the announcement need not
identify the action, the defendants, or other particulars, but shall
specify that the direction to initiate or intervene in an action has
been given and that the action, the defendants, and the other
particulars shall, once formally commenced, be disclosed to any
person upon inquiry, unless to do so would jeopardize the agency's
ability to effectuate service of process on one or more unserved
parties, or that to do so would jeopardize its ability to conclude
existing settlement negotiations to its advantage.
   (3)  Approval given to its legal counsel of a settlement of
pending litigation, as defined in Section 54956.9, at any stage prior
to or during a judicial or quasi-judicial proceeding shall be
reported after the settlement is final, as specified below:
   (A) If the legislative body accepts a settlement offer signed by
the opposing party, the body shall report its acceptance and identify
the substance of the agreement in open session at the public meeting
during which the closed session is held.
   (B) If final approval rests with some other party to the
litigation or with the court, then as soon as the settlement becomes
final, and upon inquiry by any person, the local agency shall
disclose the fact of that approval, and identify the substance of the
agreement.
   (4) Disposition reached as to claims discussed in closed session
pursuant to Section 54956.95 shall be reported as soon as reached in
a manner that identifies the name of the claimant, the name of the
local agency claimed against, the substance of the claim, and any
monetary amount approved for payment and agreed upon by the claimant.
   (5) Action taken to appoint, employ, dismiss, accept the
resignation of, or otherwise affect the employment status of a public
employee in closed session pursuant to Section 54957 shall be
reported at the public meeting during which the closed session is
held. Any report required by this paragraph shall identify the title
of the position. The general requirement of this paragraph
notwithstanding, the report of a dismissal or of the nonrenewal of an
employment contract shall be deferred until the first public meeting
following the exhaustion of administrative remedies, if any.
   (6) Approval of an agreement concluding labor negotiations with
represented employees pursuant to Section 54957.6 shall be reported
after the agreement is final and has been accepted or ratified by the
other party. The report shall identify the item approved and the
other party or parties to the negotiation.
   (7) Pension fund investment transaction decisions made pursuant to
Section 54956.81 shall be disclosed at the first open meeting of the
legislative body held after the earlier of the close of the
investment transaction or the transfer of pension fund assets for the
investment transaction.
   (b) Reports that are required to be made pursuant to this section
may be made orally or in writing. The legislative body shall provide
to any person who has submitted a written request to the legislative
body within 24 hours of the posting of the agenda, or to any person
who has made a standing request for all documentation as part of a
request for notice of meetings pursuant to Section 54954.1 or 54956,
if the requester is present at the time the closed session ends,
copies of any contracts, settlement agreements, or other documents
that were finally approved or adopted in the closed session. If the
action taken results in one or more substantive amendments to the
related documents requiring retyping, the documents need not be
released until the retyping is completed during normal business
hours, provided that the presiding officer of the legislative body or
his or her designee orally summarizes the substance of the
amendments for the benefit of the document requester or any other
person present and requesting the information.
   (c) The documentation referred to in paragraph (b) shall be
available to any person on the next business day following the
meeting in which the action referred to is taken or, in the case of
substantial amendments, when any necessary retyping is complete.
   (d) Nothing in this section shall be construed to require that the
legislative body approve actions not otherwise subject to
legislative body approval.
   (e) No action for injury to a reputational, liberty, or other
personal interest may be commenced by or on behalf of any employee or
former employee with respect to whom a disclosure is made by a
legislative body in an effort to comply with this section.
   (f) This section is necessary to implement and reasonably within
the scope of paragraph (1) of subdivision (b) of Section 3 of Article
I of the California Constitution.

54957.2.  (a) The legislative body of a local agency may, by
ordinance or resolution, designate a clerk or other officer or
employee of the local agency who shall then attend each closed
session of the legislative body and keep and enter in a minute book a
record of topics discussed and decisions made at the meeting.  The
minute book made pursuant to this section is not a public record
subject to inspection pursuant to the California Public Records Act
(Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division 7 of Title
1), and shall be kept confidential.  The minute book shall be
available only to members of the legislative body or, if a violation
of this chapter is alleged to have occurred at a closed session, to a
court of general jurisdiction wherein the local agency lies.  Such
minute book may, but need not, consist of a recording of the closed
session.
   (b) An elected legislative body of a local agency may require that
each legislative body all or a majority of whose members are
appointed by or under the authority of the elected legislative body
keep a minute book as prescribed under subdivision (a).

54957.5.  (a) Notwithstanding Section 6255 or any other provisions
of law, agendas of public meetings and any other writings, when
distributed to all, or a majority of all, of the members of a
legislative body of a local agency by any person in connection with a
matter subject to discussion or consideration at a public meeting of
the body, are disclosable public records under the California Public
Records Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division
7 of Title 1), and shall be made available upon request without
delay.  However, this section shall not include any writing exempt
from public disclosure under Section 6253.5, 6254, 6254.7, or
6254.22.
   (b) Writings that are public records under subdivision (a) and
that are distributed during a public meeting shall be made available
for public inspection at the meeting if prepared by the local agency
or a member of its legislative body, or after the meeting if prepared
by some other person.  These writings shall be made available in
appropriate alternative formats upon request by a person with a
disability, as required by Section 202 of the Americans with
Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. Sec. 12132), and the federal
rules and regulations adopted in implementation thereof.
   (c) Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent the
legislative body of a local agency from charging a fee or deposit for
a copy of a public record pursuant to Section 6253, except that no
surcharge shall be imposed on persons with disabilities in violation
of Section 202 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42
U.S.C. Sec. 12132), and the federal rules and regulations adopted in
implementation thereof.
   (d) This section shall not be construed to limit or delay the
public's right to inspect or obtain a copy of any record required to
be disclosed under the requirements of the California Public Records
Act (Chapter 3.5 (commencing with Section 6250) of Division 7 of
Title 1).  Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to require a
legislative body of a local agency to place any paid advertisement or
any other paid notice in any publication.

54957.6.  (a) Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a
legislative body of a local agency may hold closed sessions with the
local agency's designated representatives regarding the salaries,
salary schedules, or compensation paid in the form of fringe benefits
of its represented and unrepresented employees, and, for represented
employees, any other matter within the statutorily provided scope of
representation.
   However, prior to the closed session, the legislative body of the
local agency shall hold an open and public session in which it
identifies its designated representatives.
   Closed sessions of a legislative body of a local agency, as
permitted in this section, shall be for the purpose of reviewing its
position and instructing the local agency's designated
representatives.
   Closed sessions, as permitted in this section, may take place
prior to and during consultations and discussions with
representatives of employee organizations and unrepresented
employees.
   Closed sessions with the local agency's designated representative
regarding the salaries, salary schedules, or compensation paid in the
form of fringe benefits may include discussion of an agency's
available funds and funding priorities, but only insofar as these
discussions relate to providing instructions to the local agency's
designated representative.
   Closed sessions held pursuant to this section shall not include
final action on the proposed compensation of one or more
unrepresented employees.
   For the purposes enumerated in this section, a legislative body of
a local agency may also meet with a state conciliator who has
intervened in the proceedings.
   (b) For the purposes of this section, the term "employee" shall
include an officer or an independent contractor who functions as an
officer or an employee, but shall not include any elected official,
member of a legislative body, or other independent contractors.

54957.7.  (a) Prior to holding any closed session, the legislative
body of the local agency shall disclose, in an open meeting, the item
or items to be discussed in the closed session.  The disclosure may
take the form of a reference to the item or items as they are listed
by number or letter on the agenda.  In the closed session, the
legislative body may consider only those matters covered in its
statement.  Nothing in this section shall require or authorize a
disclosure of information prohibited by state or federal law.
   (b) After any closed session, the legislative body shall reconvene
into open session prior to adjournment and shall make any
disclosures required by Section 54957.1 of action taken in the closed
session.
   (c) The announcements required to be made in open session pursuant
to this section may be made at the location announced in the agenda
for the closed session, as long as the public is allowed to be
present at that location for the purpose of hearing the
announcements.

54957.8.  Nothing contained in this chapter shall be construed to
prevent the legislative body of a multijurisdictional drug law
enforcement agency, or an advisory body of a multijurisdictional drug
law enforcement agency, from holding closed sessions to discuss the
case records of any ongoing criminal investigation of the
multijurisdictional drug law enforcement agency or of any party to
the joint powers agreement, to hear testimony from persons involved
in the investigation, and to discuss courses of action in particular
cases.
   "Multijurisdictional drug law enforcement agency," for purposes of
this section, means a joint powers entity formed pursuant to Article
1 (commencing with Section 6500) of Chapter 5 of Division 7 of Title
1, which provides drug law enforcement services for the parties to
the joint powers agreement.
   The Legislature finds and declares that this section is within the
public interest, in that its provisions are necessary to prevent the
impairment of ongoing law enforcement investigations, to protect
witnesses and informants, and to permit the discussion of effective
courses of action in particular cases.

54957.9.  In the event that any meeting is willfully interrupted by
a group or groups of persons so as to render the orderly conduct of
such meeting unfeasible and order cannot be restored by the removal
of individuals who are willfully interrupting the meeting, the
members of the legislative body conducting the meeting may order the
meeting room cleared and continue in session.  Only matters appearing
on the agenda may be considered in such a session.  Representatives
of the press or other news media, except those participating in the
disturbance, shall be allowed to attend any session held pursuant to
this section.  Nothing in this section shall prohibit the legislative
body from establishing a procedure for readmitting an individual or
individuals not responsible for willfully disturbing the orderly
conduct of the meeting.

54957.10.  Notwithstanding any other provision of law, a legislative
body of a local agency may hold closed sessions to discuss a local
agency employee's application for early withdrawal of funds in a
deferred compensation plan when the application is based on financial
hardship arising from an unforeseeable emergency due to illness,
accident, casualty, or other extraordinary event, as specified in the
deferred compensation plan.

54958.  The provisions of this chapter shall apply to the
legislative body of every local agency notwithstanding the
conflicting provisions of any other state law.

54959.  Each member of a legislative body who attends a meeting of
that legislative body where action is taken in violation of any
provision of this chapter, and where the member intends to deprive
the public of information to which the member knows or has reason to
know the public is entitled under this chapter, is guilty of a
misdemeanor.

54960.  (a) The district attorney or any interested person may
commence an action by mandamus, injunction or declaratory relief for
the purpose of stopping or preventing violations or threatened
violations of this chapter by members of the legislative body of a
local agency or to determine the applicability of this chapter to
actions or threatened future action of the legislative body, or to
determine whether any rule or action by the legislative body to
penalize or otherwise discourage the expression of one or more of its
members is valid or invalid under the laws of this state or of the
United States, or to compel the legislative body to tape record its
closed sessions as hereinafter provided.
   (b) The court in its discretion may, upon a judgment of a
violation of Section 54956.7, 54956.8, 54956.9, 54956.95, 54957, or
54957.6, order the legislative body to tape record its closed
sessions and preserve the tape recordings for the period and under
the terms of security and confidentiality the court deems
appropriate.
   (c) (1) Each recording so kept shall be immediately labeled with
the date of the closed session recorded and the title of the clerk or
other officer who shall be custodian of the recording.
   (2) The tapes shall be subject to the following discovery
procedures:
   (A) In any case in which discovery or disclosure of the tape is
sought by either the district attorney or the plaintiff in a civil
action pursuant to Section 54959, 54960, or 54960.1 alleging that a
violation of this chapter has occurred in a closed session which has
been recorded pursuant to this section, the party seeking discovery
or disclosure shall file a written notice of motion with the
appropriate court with notice to the governmental agency which has
custody and control of the tape recording.  The notice shall be given
pursuant to subdivision (b) of Section 1005 of the Code of Civil
Procedure.
   (B) The notice shall include, in addition to the items required by
Section 1010 of the Code of Civil Procedure, all of the following:
   (i) Identification of the proceeding in which discovery or
disclosure is sought, the party seeking discovery or disclosure, the
date and time of the meeting recorded, and the governmental agency
which has custody and control of the recording.
   (ii) An affidavit which contains specific facts indicating that a
violation of the act occurred in the closed session.
   (3) If the court, following a review of the motion, finds that
there is good cause to believe that a violation has occurred, the
court may review, in camera, the recording of that portion of the
closed session alleged to have violated the act.
   (4) If, following the in camera review, the court concludes that
disclosure of a portion of the recording would be likely to
materially assist in the resolution of the litigation alleging
violation of this chapter, the court shall, in its discretion, make a
certified transcript of the portion of the recording a public
exhibit in the proceeding.
   (5) Nothing in this section shall permit discovery of
communications which are protected by the attorney-client privilege.

54960.1.  (a) The district attorney or any interested person may
commence an action by mandamus or injunction for the purpose of
obtaining a judicial determination that an action taken by a
legislative body of a local agency in violation of Section 54953,
54954.2, 54954.5, 54954.6, 54956, or 54956.5 is null and void under
this section.  Nothing in this chapter shall be construed to prevent
a legislative body from curing or correcting an action challenged
pursuant to this section.
   (b) Prior to any action being commenced pursuant to subdivision
(a), the district attorney or interested person shall make a demand
of the legislative body to cure or correct the action alleged to have
been taken in violation of Section 54953, 54954.2, 54954.5, 54954.6,
54956, or 54956.5.  The demand shall be in writing and clearly
describe the challenged action of the legislative body and nature of
the alleged violation.
   (c) (1) The written demand shall be made within 90 days from the
date the action was taken unless the action was taken in an open
session but in violation of Section 54954.2, in which case the
written demand shall be made within 30 days from the date the action
was taken.
   (2) Within 30 days of receipt of the demand, the legislative body
shall cure or correct the challenged action and inform the demanding
party in writing of its actions to cure or correct or inform the
demanding party in writing of its decision not to cure or correct the
challenged action.
   (3) If the legislative body takes no action within the 30-day
period, the inaction shall be deemed a decision not to cure or
correct the challenged action, and the 15-day period to commence the
action described in subdivision (a) shall commence to run the day
after the 30-day period to cure or correct expires.
   (4) Within 15 days of receipt of the written notice of the
legislative body's decision to cure or correct, or not to cure or
correct, or within 15 days of the expiration of the 30-day period to
cure or correct, whichever is earlier, the demanding party shall be
required to commence the action pursuant to subdivision (a) or
thereafter be barred from commencing the action.
   (d) An action taken that is alleged to have been taken in
violation of Section 54953, 54954.2, 54954.5, 54954.6, 54956, or
54956.5 shall not be determined to be null and void if any of the
following conditions exist:
   (1) The action taken was in substantial compliance with Sections
54953, 54954.2, 54954.5, 54954.6, 54956, and 54956.5.
   (2) The action taken was in connection with the sale or issuance
of notes, bonds, or other evidences of indebtedness or any contract,
instrument, or agreement thereto.
   (3) The action taken gave rise to a contractual obligation,
including a contract let by competitive bid other than compensation
for services in the form of salary or fees for professional services,
upon which a party has, in good faith and without notice of a
challenge to the validity of the action, detrimentally relied.
   (4) The action taken was in connection with the collection of any
tax.
   (5) Any person, city, city and county, county, district, or any
agency or subdivision of the state alleging noncompliance with
subdivision (a) of Section 54954.2, Section 54956, or Section
54956.5, because of any defect, error, irregularity, or omission in
the notice given pursuant to those provisions, had actual notice of
the item of business at least 72 hours prior to the meeting at which
the action was taken, if the meeting was noticed pursuant to Section
54954.2, or 24 hours prior to the meeting at which the action was
taken if the meeting was noticed pursuant to Section 54956, or prior
to the meeting at which the action was taken if the meeting is held
pursuant to Section 54956.5.
   (e) During any action seeking a judicial determination pursuant to
subdivision (a) if the court determines, pursuant to a showing by
the legislative body that an action alleged to have been taken in
violation of Section 54953, 54954.2, 54954.5, 54954.6, 54956, or
54956.5 has been cured or corrected by a subsequent action of the
legislative body, the action filed pursuant to subdivision (a) shall
be dismissed with prejudice.
   (f) The fact that a legislative body takes a subsequent action to
cure or correct an action taken pursuant to this section shall not be
construed or admissible as evidence of a violation of this chapter.

54960.5.  A court may award court costs and reasonable attorney fees
to the plaintiff in an action brought pursuant to Section 54960 or
54960.1 where it is found that a legislative body of the local agency
has violated this chapter.  The costs and fees shall be paid by the
local agency and shall not become a personal liability of any public
officer or employee of the local agency.
   A court may award court costs and reasonable attorney fees to a
defendant in any action brought pursuant to Section 54960 or 54960.1
where the defendant has prevailed in a final determination of such
action and the court finds that the action was clearly frivolous and
totally lacking in merit.

54961.  (a) No legislative body of a local agency shall conduct any
meeting in any facility that prohibits the admittance of any person,
or persons, on the basis of race, religious creed, color, national
origin, ancestry, or sex, or which is inaccessible to disabled
persons, or where members of the public may not be present without
making a payment or purchase.  This section shall apply to every
local agency as defined in Section 54951.
   (b) No notice, agenda, announcement, or report required under this
chapter need identify any victim or alleged victim of tortious
sexual conduct or child abuse unless the identity of the person has
been publicly disclosed.

54962.  Except as expressly authorized by this chapter, or by
Sections 1461, 1462, 32106, and 32155 of the Health and Safety Code
or Sections 37606 and 37624.3 of the Government Code as they apply to
hospitals, or by any provision of the Education Code pertaining to
school districts and community college districts, no closed session
may be held by any legislative body of any local agency.

54963.  (a) A person may not disclose confidential information that
has been acquired by being present in a closed session authorized by
Section 54956.7, 54956.8, 54956.86, 54956.87, 54956.9, 54957,
54957.6, 54957.8, or 54957.10 to a person not entitled to receive it,
unless the legislative body authorizes disclosure of that
confidential information.
   (b) For purposes of this section, "confidential information" means
a communication made in a closed session that is specifically
related to the basis for the legislative body of a local agency to
meet lawfully in closed session under this chapter.
   (c) Violation of this section may be addressed by the use of such
remedies as are currently available by law, including, but not
limited to:
   (1) Injunctive relief to prevent the disclosure of confidential
information prohibited by this section.
   (2) Disciplinary action against an employee who has willfully
disclosed confidential information in violation of this section.
   (3) Referral of a member of a legislative body who has willfully
disclosed confidential information in violation of this section to
the grandjury.
   (d) Disciplinary action pursuant to paragraph (2) of subdivision
(c) shall require that the employee in question has either received
training as to the requirements of this section or otherwise has been
given notice of the requirements of this section.
   (e) A local agency may not take any action authorized by
subdivision (c) against a person, nor shall it be deemed a violation
of this section, for doing any of the following:
   (1) Making a confidential inquiry or complaint to a district
attorney or grand jury concerning a perceived violation of law,
including disclosing facts to a district attorney or grand jury that
are necessary to establish the illegality of an action taken by a
legislative body of a local agency or the potential illegality of an
action that has been the subject of deliberation at a closed session
if that action were to be taken by a legislative body of a local
agency.
   (2) Expressing an opinion concerning the propriety or legality of
actions taken by a legislative body of a local agency in closed
session, including disclosure of the nature and extent of the illegal
or potentially illegal action.
   (3) Disclosing information acquired by being present in a closed
session under this chapter that is not confidential information.
   (f) Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit
disclosures under the whistleblower statutes contained in Section
1102.5 of the Labor Code or Article 4.5 (commencing with Section
53296) of Chapter 2 of this code.
   

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